the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis
in this study we assessed
we demonstrated that there was a direct
were responsible for
played the role of
on the basis of evidence available to date
in order to provide a basis for comparing
as a result of
for the following reasons
during the course of this experiment
during the process of
during periods when
for the duration of the study
the nature of
a large (or small or limited) number of
conspicuous numbers of
an individual taxon
seedlings, irrespective of species
all of the species
various lines of evidence
they do not themselves possess
were still present
the analysis presented in this paper
indicating the presence of
despite the presence of
checked for the presence of
in the absence of
a series of observations
may be the mechanism responsible for
it is reasonable to assume that where light is not limiting
in a single period of a few hours
occur in areas of North America
adjacent transects were separated by at least 20 m
in the vicinity
separated by a maximum distance of 10 m and a minimum distance of 3 m
the present-day population
their subsequent fate
whether or not
are not uncommon
due to the fact that
showed a tendency toward higher survival
devastated with drought-induced desiccation
I (or we) hypothesized
we demonstrated direct
during the experiment
during the study
(omit by rearrangement)
many (or few)
may have caused
with light not limiting
in a few hours
are in North America
>20 m apart
3-10 m apart
(omit by rearrangement)
had higher survival
killed by drought
Words and Proper Usage
- accuracy (see precision): extent of correctness of a measurement or statement.
- affect (see effect): verb, to cause a change or an effect; to influence.
- among (see between): use in comparing >2 things.
- between (see among): use in comparing only 2 things.
- cf.: compare
- circadian: approximately 24 hours.
- continual: going on in time with no, or with brief, interruption.
- continuous: going on in time or space without interruption.
- diurnal: recurring every 24 hours; occurring in daylight hours.
- effect (see affect): usually a noun, the result of an action; as an adverb (rare),
bring about or cause to exist, or to perform.
- e.g. (see i.e.): for example.
- enable (see permit): to supply with means, knowledge, or opportunity; to make
- ensure (see insure): to make certain or guarantee.
- farther: more distant in space, time, or relation.
- further: going beyond what exists, to move forward.
- i.e. (see e.g.): that is.
- incidence (see prevalence): number of cases developing per unit of population per
unit of time.
- insure (see ensure): to assure against loss.
- livetrap: verb.
- live trap: noun.
- logistic: symbolic logic.
- logistics: operational details of a project or activity.
- mass (see weight): proper international use for measures of mass.
- ovendry: adjective.
- oven-dry: verb.
- percent: adjective, adverb, or noun. Spell out only when the value is spelled out
or when used as an adjective. Use "%" with numerals.
- percentage: noun, part of a whole expressed in hundredths; often misused as an
adjective, e.g., percent error, not percentage error.
- permit (see enable): to allow, to give formal consent.
- precision (see accuracy): degree of refinement with which a measurement is made
or stated; e.g., the number 3.43 shows more precision than 3.4, but is not
necessarily more accurate.
- prevalence (see incidence): number of cases existing per unit of population at a
- sensu: as understood or defined by; used in taxonomic reference.
- since: from some past time until present; not a synonym for because or as.
- presently: in the future, not synonymous with at present or currently.
- that (see which): pronoun introducing a restrictive clause (seldom preceded by a
- usage: firmly established and generally accepted practice or procedure.
utilization, utilize: avoid by using "use" instead.
- various: of different kinds.
- varying: changing or causing to change. Do not use for different.
- very: a vague qualitative term; avoid in scientific writing.
- weight (see mass): should seldom be used.
- viz: namely.
- which (see that): pronoun introducing a nonrestrictive clause (often preceded by a
comma or preposition [for, in, or of which]); the word most often misused in
- while: during the time that. Use for time relations but not as synonym for whereas,
although, and similarly, which do not imply time.